I assume that the reader of this article has previously read articles #1 and #2 in this series. If you have read article #2 dealing with the Biblical King David we saw a preponderance of evidence that teaches us that King David of the Old Testament is the historical Pharaoh Thutmose III.
Answer for yourself: If King David is to be properly identified as an adaptation of the Pharaoh Thutmose III, then should we not expect that from through his loins, one way or the other, would come one whom we know today as King Solomon? Should we expect that he should also be a Pharaoh and also be found in Egypt?
Our study will focus on the most important Pharaohs of the 18th dynasty:
Answer for yourself: Did you notice that out beside three names of these 18th Dynasty Pharaohs are the more familiar Biblical names of familiar Jewish heroes and Kings? What could we possibly mean by that? Have we lost our mind at Bet Emet Ministries? Are we insinuating that the real identities of these Biblical characters are possibly Egyptian Pharaohs? Yes that is exactly what we are saying and we have the evidence to prove such an identification as you will see if you continue to study.
You should have noticed one other thing that is quite startling considering what we have been taught by the Old Testament. It must be said at the beginning that the chronology of the Bible represents Solomon as the son of King David. However when we get to Egypt we see that the Biblical chronology is questionable due to highly detailed and accurate Egyptian records and as you study you will see this for yourself. As our study progresses and the evidence mounts that the King Solomon of the Bible is in reality Amenhotep III. We will also begin to notice that unlike what we have led to believe; for example, that King Solomon is the son of King David, such is not the truth. We will find that King Solomon is not the son but rather the grandson of Tuthmose III (King David of the Bible).
Answer for yourself: So what is the truth? Well let us do our study and examine the historical evidence and and assorted historical facts we find outside the Old Testament and then you will see quite clearly which is true and let me give you a hint...it is not the Biblical account. Now on with the study.
The Hebrew Old Testament contains a lot of information about King Solomon. Much of it is true and some is not. In the Hebrew Scriptures it is said of King Solomon:
I Kings 4:21 21 And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life. (KJV)
Answer for yourself: If we can prove that King Solomon is a Pharaoh then what does that say about about the same promise made earlier to the Hebrew "Patriarchs"; for example the one which we find in Gen 15:18 which was made to Abraham?
Gen. 15: 18 18 In the same day the LORD made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates: (KJV)
Answer for yourself: Could Abraham have been a Pharaoh and we not know it? Would this explain why Josephus writes that Abraham had 318 "officers" indicating an vast army of legions when the inherited Hebrew Texts given us by Ezra says "318 servants"? Did Ezra cover this up? I again refer you to article #2 to begin to see the truth about Ezra. Now let us look at more of the "same" promises in the Hebrew Texts and to "whom" they were made.
Deut 1:6-7 6 The LORD our God spake unto us in Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount: 7 Turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and unto all the places nigh thereunto, in the plain, in the hills, and in the vale, and in the south, and by the sea side, to the land of the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Euphrates. (KJV)
Answer for yourself: Where did Moses get the authority to promise this land which was owned by Egypt to these "fleeing" Hebrews? Could it have been that Moses was a Pharaoh and we not know it?
Josh 1:1-4 1 Now after the death of Moses the servant of the LORD it came to pass, that the LORD spake unto Joshua the son of Nun, Moses' minister, saying, 2 Moses my servant is dead; now therefore arise, go over this Jordan, thou, and all this people, unto the land which I do give to them, even to the children of Israel. 3 Every place that the sole of your foot shall tread upon, that have I given unto you, as I said unto Moses. 4 From the wilderness and this Lebanon even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea toward the going down of the sun, shall be your coast. (KJV)
Answer for yourself: Where did Joshua get the authority to promise this land which was owned by Egypt to these "fleeing" Hebrews? Could it have been that Joshua also was a Pharaoh and we not know it?
2 Sam 8:1-3 1 And after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them: and David took Metheg'ammah out of the hand of the Philistines. 2 And he smote Moab, and measured them with a line, casting them down to the ground; even with two lines measured he to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moabites became David's servants, and brought gifts. 3 David smote also Hadadezer, the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates. (KJV)
Answer for yourself: Where did King David get the ownership of this Egyptian land? Could King David have been a Pharaoh? Well we saw that he was in article #2. That determination is not hard for you now once reading article #2. We will deal with these other Patriarchs in future articles. Now let us get back to Solomon.
The Hebrew Scriptures teach us that King Solomon accumulated great wealth and wisdom.
23 So king Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth in riches and in wisdom. (1917 Tanakh)
7 And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, who provided victuals for the king and his household: each man had to make provision for a month in the year.
1 ¶ And Solomon became allied to Pharaoh king of Egypt by marriage, and took Pharaoh's daughter, and brought her into the city of David, until he had made an end of building his own house, and the house of the LORD, and the wall of Jerusalem round about (I Kings 3:1)
1 ¶ Now king Solomon loved many foreign women, besides the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; (I Kings. 11:1)
3 And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines; and his wives turned away his heart. (I Kings 11:3)
4 For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods; and his heart was not whole with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father. 5 For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the detestation of the Ammonites. (I Kings 11:4-5).
15 ¶ And this is the account of the levy which king Solomon raised; to build the house of the LORD, and his own house, and Millo, and the wall of Jerusalem, and Hazor, and Megiddo, and Gezer. (1 Kings 9:15).
17 And Solomon built Gezer, and Beth-horon the nether, 18 and Baalath, and Tadmor in the wilderness, in the land, 19 and all the store-cities that Solomon had, and the cities for his chariots, and the cities for his horsemen, and that which Solomon desired to build for his pleasure in Jerusalem, and in Lebanon, and in all the land of his dominion. (I Kings 9:17-19).
Answer for yourself: What were some of these building accomplishments:
Answer for yourself: In reading a book entitled Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times by Redford he asks a good question so let me paraphrase it: Since archeology and history testifies to a pattern where other great Bronze and Iron Age cultures in the ancient Near East (Egyptian, Babylonian, Assyrian, and Hittite) left as a legacy numerous documents, art, and inscriptions on buildings or public monuments would should we not expect to have such testimony left by such a great king and master builder let alone by the descendants and admirers of King Solomon in order to honor him? Of course we would expect this to occur yet the hard facts of archeology and history hits us right between the eyes. No article of any king bearing the name of "King Solomon" has ever been found as of today (Ibid. p. 309) anywhere!
The cities of Hazor, Megiddo and Gezer, which as we have seen were built by King Solomon, have now been extensively excavated and all artifacts discovered examined and categorized. Hazor was a large Canaanite city state in Upper Galilee and has been identified as modern Tell el-Qedah only 14 kilometers north of the Sea of Galilee. It was one of the major commercial centres in the Fertile Cresent and we find references to it in both Egyptian and Mesopotamian texts going as far back as the eighteenth century B.C.E. Megiddo, which has been identified as modern Tell el-Mutesellim, was the largest of he ancient fortified city states in Canaan, overlooking the Jezreel Valley of Central Palestine, while Gezar, located in the foothills of the Judean Rang east of Jerusalem, was another important fortified city. A stratum containing large palaces, temples and strong fortifications was found in each of these cities. The name of Solomon, however, was not found.
Answer for yourself: Are you aware that all three of these cities were conquered by Tuthmose III (King David) in the middle of the fifteenth century B.C.E.? This has been confirmed by archeological digging , which has produced evidence of the cities' destruction in the right strata for this period (Osman, The House of the Messiah, p. 212).
Answer for yourself: Now since King Solomon is King David's grandson, and we know that King David is really Thutmose III, then should we not expect to find compelling evidence and parallels between the lives of the Biblical King Solomon and Thutmose III's grandson named Amenhotep III? We should and we do.
Answer for yourself: Are you aware that in all three cases evidence has been found of large-scale reconstruction work 50 years later during the reign of Amenhotep III (the Biblical Solomon) who was Tuthmose III's (David's) grandson?
Answer for yourself: Can you guess what of earth shattering proportions was also found in the excavations of these three cities? A cartouche containing the name not of Solomon but Amenhotep III. A Cartouche is an oval band symbolizing continuity which enclosed a gods or Pharaohs name (nomen and prenomen) similar to a modern logo, and which was the symbol of an Egyptian name in hieroglyphics. A cartouche of the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep III, Thutmose III's grandson (King David) was found in the strata belonging to this period and nothing was found indicating a "King Solomon" had been connected with any of these 3 cities in any way whatsoever. (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 212).
In Jerusalem, it has not been possible to excavate the temple mount, however, extensive excavations in the city, including the areas adjacent to the temple mount have not revealed the existence of a Solomaic palace complex (Osman, The House of the Messiah, p. 216). Moreover, excavation of the Millo has revealed (due to pottery found in the Millo) that its original construction was also contemporary with the Egyptian 18th Dynasty of Amenhotep III (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 200-201; Rohl, Pharaohs and Kings, p. 181).
Amenhotep III of Egypt, Pharaoh of the Egypt's glorious 18th Dynasty, was known in ancient times as the "King of Kings" and "Ruler of Ruler's" (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 35). He, like the Biblical Solomon, inherited a vast empire whose influence extended quite literally from the Nile to the Euphrates (Osman, House of Messiah, p. 202).
Answer for yourself: Does it stand to reason that any Jewish king would ever inherit the Nile in Egypt? (THINK).
In contrast to the empire of Solomon, which we can find no trace outside of the inherited adulterated Hebrew texts bequeathed to us by Ezra, the empire of Amenhotep is indisputable (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 43). The buildings, monuments, documents, art, and numerous other vestiges of his reign are universal and unparalleled (with the possible exception being those left by the 19th Dynasty Pharaoh, Ramses II).
The entire reign of Amenhotep III was devoted to monumental construction throughout Egypt, Canaan, and Syria (Aldred, Akhenaten, p. 147). In addition to the ancient world's most glorious temple at Luxor (Osman, The House of Messiah, p. 216), he built many other temples of similar design throughout Egypt and in the rest of his empire (Ibid. p. 217), including the Canaanite garrison cities of Hazor, Megiddo, Gezer (Ibid, p. 212), Lachish and Beth-shean (Ibid., p. 218).
According to Egyptian records, Amenhotep's father Thutmose IV and grandfather Amenhotep II deported over 80,000 Canaanites. The Canaanite inhabitants of Gezer were specifically included in this deportation (Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p. 165, 208). It was during Amenhotep III's reign (King Solomon) that Gezer and other major Palestine cities were refortified as royal Egyptian garrisons, and endowed with fine temples and palaces.
The Bible states that in Solomon's day, the Pharaoh of Egypt captured the Canaanite city of Gezer and presented it to his daughter as a dowry upon her marriage to Solomon (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 205; Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p. 310).
16 Pharaoh king of Egypt had gone up, and taken Gezer, and burnt it with fire, and slain the Canaanites that dwelt in the city, and given it for a portion unto his daughter, Solomon's wife. 17 And Solomon built Gezer, and Beth-horon the nether,
We made mention in earlier articles that sons of Pharaohs inherited the throne by marrying their "sisters". And we saw in the case of Tuthmose III, being of mixed blood, distanced from the throne of Egypt by failing to marry the daughter of Pharaoh thus necessitating his "adoption" by Amun in Psalm 2:6. Here we find again this example but now it applies to King Solomon. It stands to reason, if we recall, that if Tuthmose III, the grandfather of Amenhotep III, was of mixed blood then his grandson, be it Amenhotep III or Solomon would be of mixed blood and it would again be necessary to marry "the throne" by marring a daughter of a Pharaoh and this is exactly what the Hebrew Scriptures tell us Solomon did. Thus we now better understand why it was customary and obligatory for Amenhotep III to marry "the daughter of Pharaoh" in order to secure the throne (Osman, House of Messiah, p. 204-205). This is precisely what was done when he was married to Sitamun, the daughter of his father, Pharaoh Thutmose IV.
The network of Egyptian 18th Dynasty garrison cities also included the most important city of all.
Answer for yourself: Can you guess which city I am speaking about?
I bet most of you guessed it as I am speaking concerning Jerusalem. If construction by Amenhotep III at Gezer, Hazor, Megiddo and other garrison cities is any indication, then a magnificent temple undoubtedly was also built by Amenhotep II on Jerusalem's venerated Temple Mount (Osman, The House of Messiah, p. 218; Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p. 310).
Answer for yourself: Should we not be surprised to learn that the structure adjacent to Jerusalem's Temple Mount, known traditionally as "Solomon's stables," is consistent with the architecture of Amenhotep's garrison cities according to Osman? (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 218). Archaeology has also confirmed that chariots were kept in these cities during his reign in groups of between thirty to one hundred and fifty each (Ibid., p. 207).
Answer for yourself: Was Israel or Egypt known for their chariots? They both were! Is this a link between Solomon and Amenhotep III?
Answer for yourself: Are you aware that the ancient mining operations at Timna in the Negev desert, known as "Solomon's mines," "are much earlier than the Biblical dating for King Solomon by some three hundred years [in the conventional chronology]? This little know fact, given to us by Mazar, Archaeology of the Land of the Bible, is but one more piece of puzzle that is showing us that Amenhotep III is the Biblical Solomon.
Answer for yourself: This should expect and do we find that the date and times of Amenhotep III correspond exactly to the Biblical dating for "Solomon's mines? Yes we do!
Copper from Timna, gold from the Sudan, other precious metals, jewels and high quality stone were used in great abundance in Amenhotep's temples, just as they were in Solomon's (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 217). A stela from Amenhotep's mortuary temple boasts that the temple was "embellished with gold throughout, its floor shining with silver ... with royal statues of granite, of quartzite and precious stones." The list of materials used in another temple built by Amenhotep is also "staggering: 3.25 tons of electrum [an alloy of silver and gold], 2.5 tons of gold, 944 tons of copper..." (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 45, quoted by Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 217).
The Hebrew Scriptures, in Ecclesiastes 2:4-11), teach us that the Biblical Solomon's greatest satisfaction is said to have been the challenge of completing grand projects.
Answer for yourself: Can the same be said for Amenhotep III? Yes. A royal Egyptian text of the period reads, "Lo, His Majesty's heart was satisfied with making very great monuments, the like of which had never come into being since the primeval age of the Two Lands" (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 43).
Only an enormously wealthy king of a long established empire could have built so splendidly and in so many widely distributed locations in the ancient world. Amenhotep III was arguably the ancient world's wealthiest king. The completion of such magnificent projects required management of a considerable and constant source of labor and revenue extending over a period of many decades.
Earlier we mentioned that the Biblical Solomon had, I Kings 4:7:
7 And Solomon had twelve officers over all Israel, who provided victuals for the king and his household: each man had to make provision for a month in the year.
Answer for yourself: Should we expect and do we find that Amenhotep III had a similar if not exact administration and taxation system with 12 districts as did King Solomon as described in the Bible? Yes we should and we find the exact system in Egypt under Amenhotep III.
Amenhotep III also dedicated himself to rediscovering the wisdom, mysteries and traditions of earlier Egyptian Dynasties (Aldred, Akhenaten, p. 151, 162, 164; Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 52).
Answer for yourself: If Solomon is Amenhotep III as were are seeing then does this explain his strong admonition to get knowledge and wisdom as we see in Proverbs and as was exhibited by Amenhotep III when studying intensely to rediscover ancient wisdom and the hidden mysteries of earlier Egyptian dynasties?
Answer for yourself: Do you recall in an earlier article that I mentioned when taking Proverbs in Seminary I ran across the connection between Solomon and Amenhotep III in the Anchor Bible Commentary on Proverbs? That being the case then this explains the strong relationship has been established between the "Proverbs of Solomon" in the Bible and the "Maxims of Amenhotep III" found in Egypt (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 222; quoting from Bright, A History of Israel, p. 199).
In addition to the projects already mentioned, Amenhotep III also built a completely new palace complex in Thebes.
Answer for yourself: Should we be surprised by now to find that this new royal residence included all of the elements contained in the palace complex of Solomon which are described in the Bible in 1 Kings 7:2-12)? Not at all really; at least not by now having previously read the article on Tuthmose III and having read this far into the article on Amenhotep III
Answer for yourself: What were these elements? Osman, in his House of the Messiah, p. 214-216, states that they were:
Answer for yourself: Should we be surprised any longer that Amenhotep III, like Solomon, were relentless in their pursuit of women for their harem, especially beautiful foreign women of both royal and common backgrounds alike (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 37). No; not really.
Amenhotep III's harem included two princesses from Babylon, two princesses from Syria, two princesses from Mitanni, and like Solomon's harem.
Answer for yourself: Should be any longer surprised that Amenhotep III's harem included a princess from each of the seven nations listed in 1 Kings 11:1 which is mentioned for King Solomon as well? (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 204). As the mightiest king of the Middle East, Amenhotep did not send any of his own daughters to other kings in exchange, nor did any other Pharaoh of this dynasty (or likely any other throughout Egypt's history). He specifically denied a request by the king of Babylon for an Egyptian wife (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 37). Importantly, the Bible emphasizes Solomon's Egyptian bride, but does not mention that Solomon had any Hebrew wives (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 204-205). Rehoboam, who is said to have succeeded Solomon, was the son of an Ammonite princess and not a Hebrew wife (Ibid., p. 2040205).
The court of Amenhotep III was an extremely liberal one, and reflected every possible excess of an affluent and secure kingdom (Redford, Akhenaten the Heretic King, p. 46). Eroticism in art and court life reached its height during the reign of Amenhotep III (Aldred, Akhenaten King of Egypt, p. 132). The famous "nude dancing girls" mural dates to Amenhotep's reign (Aldred, Egyptian Art, p. 176; Aldred, Akhenaten, p. 131-132).
As with Solomon, Amenhotep III denied himself nothing "his eyes desired" and "refused his heart no pleasure" (Ecclesiastes 2:10).
10 And whatsoever mine eyes desired I kept not from them; I withheld not my heart from any joy, for my heart had joy of all my labour; and this was my portion from all my labour
However, the last years of Amenhotep III's thirty-eight year reign were not pleasant ones. The long years of indulgence had taken their toll and he had many ailments.
Answer for yourself: What have we seen?
The "inescapable conclusion" to any "thinking believer" is that the story of Solomon was patterned specifically after the life of Amenhotep III. The name Solomon itself, which literally means "peace" or "safety" points to Amenhotep III whose long and pervasive reign in the 14th Century B.C. did not include any major military campaigns, but was characterized by unprecedented stability throughout the Near East (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 202). After the Egyptian 18th Dynasty, the region between the two great rivers was not controlled by a single power again until the Assyrian empire of Ashurbanipal (the grandson of Sennacherib) who invaded Egypt and pillaged Thebes in the 7th Century B.C. (Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, p. 364), and the 6th Century B.C. empire of Cyrus, who also conquered Egypt and made it a Persian province (Osman, House of the Messiah, p. 88). There is no evidence of any empire at any time controlling this region whose capital was Jerusalem.
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