BET EMET MINISTRIES

Hebrew For "The House Of Truth"

Craig M. Lyons Ms.D., D.D., M.Div.

bennoah1@verizon.net

JOSEPH'S DAUGHTER....QUEEN OF EGYPT

Now we established above the fact that Joseph's daughter, Tiye, was married to Amenhotep III, the Biblical Solomon. This is where we pick up once again our interest in the "bloodline" for our study of the Hebrew Pharaohs of Egypt.

Answer for yourself: Does the book of Genesis mention anything about Joseph having a daughter and that through this daughter and her marriage to the Pharaoh that their children will provide the link between the Israelites and the royal house of Egypt? No. But this is what happens as we shall see.

If we recall we remember the promise made to Abraham that his descendants will inherit the land from the "the river of Egypt (Nile) to the Euphrates" but the Old Testament does not tell us that this promise is because of Sarah' seed from Thutmose III the Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt. But all looks lost when she and her husband are expelled from Egypt with Hagar a handmaid given to Sarah to help in her pregnancy. Later we find Isaac's own son despising the promise made to his ancestors and believing it an impossibility Esau sold this "birthright" to Jacob. As we also remember it would be Jacob's favorite son Joseph who would be the envy of his brothers and with the interpretation of 2 dreams and their implications for his brothers then the sons of Jacob revolted against their brother and got rid of him by faking his death and sold him into slavery to Midianite travelers who ironically took him back into Egypt where through unusual circumstances he finds himself in time setting next to Pharaoh and second in importance in all of Egypt. Through Joseph's marriage with the priest of On's daughter he has a family of sons and a daughter which the Old Testament is completely silent concerning. It is this daughter of Joseph which will later marry the Pharaoh and from their union comes the Hebrew Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty which are part Hebrew and part Egyptian. This is where we meet the most famous of them all.....Akhenaten....Pharaoh of Egypt....the Biblical Moses. We pick up the story with Joseph.

The Book of Genesis makes certain that it does not mention Joseph as being the father of a daughter. We are all aware of his two sons, Manasseh (Anen) and Ephraim (Aye), who were already with him in Egypt at the time the tribes of Israel made their Descent from Canaan to join him but the Biblical text is completely silent concerning the existence of a daughter.

Answer for yourself: Could it be that this "unknown" daughter be the 70th name missing from the list of Israelite immigrants in the Book of Genesis?

Many scholars today point out that once the identification of Joseph as Yuya is accepted then a more believable explanation of why Joseph's daughters' name is absence from the Biblical record is because that Joseph's daughter is in reality Yuya's daughter "Tiye" who, despite being half-Israelite, became Queen of Egypt. Where as before Sarah had the "title" but exiled from Egypt and living a nomadic existence in Palestine now we have the actual heiress of the Israelite bloodline married and on the throne of Egypt with her husband who is the reigning Pharaoh of the time in this 18th Dynasty. Her name and its absence from the list of names of Israelites in Egypt is because it absence helps to mask the Israelite-Egyptian connection and such absence was crafted when the Book of Genesis was set down in writing many centuries after the events it describes. Tiye's name was excised from the Old Testament as a result of bitter memories of the Exodus which is just around the corner.

If, as we saw earlier, it was Tuthmose IV who appointed Yuya (Joseph) initially to the post of minister, this sequence of events would make sense of what happened after the death of Amenhotep III's father in 1405 BC when Amenhotep III was only about 12 years of age. Records indicate that in accordance with Egyptian custom Amenhotep III married his sister, Sitamun, in order to inherit the throne, but shortly afterwards he also married Tiye, the daughter of Yuya (Joseph) and Tuya, and made her rather than Sitamun his Great Royal Wife (queen). At the time of these marriages Sitamun is thought to have been about three years of age and Tiye eight (Ahmed Osman, Out of Egypt, p. 59).

The childhood romance between Amenhotep III and Tiye, the daughter of Yuya (Joseph), the vizier of Pharaoh and father of Amenhotep III, can be easily explained by the posts held by both her parents, which meant that the two children grew up together. As a minister to both pharaohs (father and son), responsible for the chariots, a similar unit to the king's guard, Yuya (Joseph) would have been required to live in the royal residence. This was also true of his wife, Tuya, who was the king's "ornament", a position which might be said to combine the duties of a modern butler and lady-in-waiting, and could also indicate that she had been the king's nanny. It has also been suggested that Tiye, Joseph's daughter, was acceptable as a bride for the young king because Tuya, her mother, was herself of royal blood being the daughter of the priest of On (Heliopolis). Arthur Weigall, referring to Tuya's mummy, makes the point in his book The Life and Times of Akhenaten that she "may have been . . . the grand-daughter of Tuthmose III [David], to whom she bears some likeness of face".This view is supported by three titles found in her tomb:

Also we must consider the fact that Tiye, the daughter of Joseph (Yuya) and Tuya, is often referred to as "royal daughter". This, Weigall argues, would also help to explain why she and Yuya were given such a fine tomb in the Valley of the Kings (Ibid., p. 60). What again is important for our study is that the "bloodline" of the Hebrews, beginning with Isaac, the son of Tuthmose III, reunites with the throne of Egypt in the daughter of Joseph (Yuya) whom is the historical Tiye, wife of the Pharaoh and from this marriage will come the Biblical Moses.....know also as Akhenaten, Amenhotep IV.

The fact that the marriage of Amenhotep III and Tiye took place early in his reign is established by two of five commemorative scarabs (sacred beetles) issued by the king and discovered in the latter part of the last century. After their wedding, Amenhotep III presented Tiye with the frontier fortress of Zarw (in the area of modern Quantara East of the Suez Canal) as a kind of summer palace so that she could be near her Israelite relatives, settled at Goshen (beyond Egypt proper, because shepherds were still "an abomination"). Goshen was in those days linked with the fortress of Zarw by water. The last of the above scarabs describes the construction of a pleasure lake for Queen Tiye at Zarw in Year 11 (1395 BC) of Amenhotep III's reign. Six versions of the scarab have been found. Although there are some minor differences, they all agree on the main points of the text (Ibid., p. 61).

These scarabs suggest that Queen Tiye enjoyed an idyllic marriage to an immensely rich, powerful and indulgent husband, happy to grant her every wish, even to presenting her with a summer palace, so that she could be close to her Israelite relatives in Goshen, together with a pleasure lake. However, the man at her side on that October day, when they were enjoying a kind of second honeymoon, could foresee, because his wife being the daughter of a Hebrew (Joseph-himself of a mixed blood line with Egypt) was herself an extension of this mixed blood lineage and was not the "legal" heiress and only half-Egyptian. This mixed blood lineage was the beginning of a serious crisis ahead over the Pharaoh's line of succession if his wife's expected child proved to be a boy, a crisis that would not be easy to resolve, even for Amenhotep III. Today, 3,500 years later, he still enjoys the reputation of someone who was infinitely wise. Amenhotep III, you see, was the Biblical Solomon.

THE TWO SOLOMONS

At this part of our study I referred you to the article that is on this website dealing with King Solomon/Amenhotep III. A few things need be said before we leave this study. King Solomon is presented to us in the Old Testament in a number of semblances: King of Israel, who succeeded his father, David, in the 10th century B.C.E.; the son of David and Bathsheba, adulterous wife of Uriah the Hittite; commander of a vast army of men and a host of chariots ("a thousand and four hundred" and "twelve thousand horsemen" according to I Kings 10:26); overlord of a vast empire that underwent decline during his reign; the husband of Pharaoh's daughter; and the lover of "many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh" (I Kings 11:1).

Answer for yourself: Does this sound vaguely familiar?

Here we find ourselves facing a similar situation to that encountered earlier in the Old Testament when we saw that the Old Testament presented us with two contrasting characters for David; a mighty warrior who created an empire stretching from the Nile to the Euphrates (Tuthmose III, c. 1490-1436 BC) and a modest tribal chief who lived in the 10th century B.C.E. who accomplished the same events which were problematically separated by five centuries which are lumped together as if they happened at the same time. Now we have to deal with two Solomons. To examine briefly some of the attributes ascribed to him in the Book of I Kings:

Answer for yourself: Is the Biblical Solomon the literal son of King David? Well no he is not. Solomon cannot have succeeded his father David in the 10th century B.C.E. as the Bible depicts it because David (Tuthmose III), as we have seen, lived five centuries earlier and was, in fact, not his father but his great-grandfather.

In the Old Testament one often comes across accounts where the oral memory of ancient events is retold in a fictionalized form with different characters and a different time-scale. Many scholars today will write and tell you that the David (Tuthmose III-Bathsheba-Uriah story found in the Book of II Samuel should be seen as another version of the David (Tuthmose III)-Sarah-Abraham story, related in the earlier Book of Genesis, in which the King married Sarah and, on discovering that Sarah was Abraham's wife, sent the couple back to Canaan where the pregnant Sarah gave birth to Isaac, the king's son.

The David-Bathsheba-Uriah story is set in the fortress of Jerusalem while Tuthmose III was staying there during the siege of Megiddo (Armageddon), the first military encounter of his campaign, shortly after Hatshepsut's death, to restore the Egyptian empire stretching from the Nile to the Euphrates. It is said that he made inquiries about the identity of Bathsheba after seeing her bathing. Despite being told that she was the wife of Uriah the Hittite, who was serving with the king's forces at Megiddo, David sent messengers to bring her to his house where "he lay with her" (II Samuel 11:4).

As a result of this liaison, Bathsheba became pregnant. In the hope of disguising his guilt, David had Uriah brought to Jerusalem, but the warrior refused to sleep in the comfort of his own home while the king's army suffered the hardships of living in tents outside besieged Megiddo. David therefore sent him back to the front accompanied by the order: "Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle.. . that he may be smitten and die"' (II Samuel 11:15). Once Uriah had met his death, David married Bathsheba, who bore him a son.

Up to this point, both stories are remarkably similar;

The fate of the two "children of sin" is different, however. In the case of Abraham we have a hint of moral disapproval of the circumstances that led to the birth of Isaac: he is said to have been tempted by God initially to offer Isaac as "a burnt offering" (Genesis 22:2), but after Abraham responded to the temptation Isaac's life was spared and Abraham took a ram "and offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son" (22:13).

In the case of David we find a more precise moral judgement. We are told that after David had caused the death of Uriah and married Bathsheba, who bore him a son, "the thing that David had done displeased the Lord. And the Lord sent [unto David] Nathan [the prophet] who said to David, . . Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the Lord, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriah with the sword, and has taken his wife to be thy wife. . . Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thine house.. . the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die" (II Samuel 11:27, 12:1,9-10,14).

These condemnations were followed by the promise that the awaited child, which proved to be very sick, would not survive. This un-named boy died on the seventh day and David "comforted Bathsheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: and she bare a son: and he called his name Solomon...? (12:24).

Scholars are divided over the authenticity of the story of Uriah and his wife as recorded in the Bible. Hermann Gunkel, the distinguished German biblical scholar, dismisses the whole story of Uriah and his wife as having no historical basis. Ahmed Osman disagrees. Mr. Osman maintains that the names used in these fictional accounts are based on real events and such events usually point to the identity of the original historical characters and, as a rule, provide evidence that we are dealing with fact disguised as fiction. He believes that this is clearly the case with the name Uriah. Mr. Osman goes on to describe that the name Uriah is composed of two elements - Ur, a Mesopotamian word meaning "city" or "light", and Yah (iah), which is the short form of Jehovah, the Israelite God. The meaning of the name could therefore be "Jehovah's light". Yet in spite of this he is described as being a Hittite.

Answer for yourself: How can we accept that a Hittite, a traditional enemy of Egypt and the Israelites, could be a worshipper of the Israelite God and one of the heroes of David's army?

Nor do we have any information to explain the sudden appearance of this foreigner and his wife in Jerusalem, where they seem to have had their home.

To look at the matter from another point of view, Ur, the first part of Uriah's name, relates him to the birthplace of Abraham. The first reference to this in the Bible describes how Abraham and Sarah "went forth . . . from Ur of the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan" (Genesis 11:31).

Answer for yourself: This could mean either "a city of the Chaldees" or, if the word Ur was used as a proper noun, "Ur of the Chaldees". Whatever the situation regarding this early reference, later on Ur certainly became a proper noun indicating the birthplace of Abraham. Thus the name Ur-iah relates the invented character both to the God of Abraham and to the city of Abraham's origin.

We have a similar situation with the name Bathsheba. Here again we have two elements - Beth, meaning "a girl" or "a daughter", and Sheba, an area to the south of Canaan that takes its name from the local well, Beer-Sheba. The name Beth-Sheba can therefore be interpreted as "a girl (or daughter) of Sheba", which was the area in which Sarah and Abraham settled after their return from Egypt.

The statement that Solomon commanded a vast army and was overlord of a huge empire that underwent decline during his reign finds no historical support in the 10th century B.C.E., by which time the empire founded 500 years earlier by Tuthmose III, the great-grandfather of Amenhotep III, had ceased to exist. The description of Solomon as the husband of Pharaoh's daughter also cannot be true. He would have had to be a member of the royal house of Egypt rather than King of Israel before he was able to marry an Egyptian princess.

We know from the Amarna letters - the foreign archives of the 18th Dynasty, a period of rule that lasted roughly from 1575 to 1335 BC, that it was not the custom of Egyptian kings to give their daughters in marriage to foreign rulers. The reference to marriage to Pharaoh's daughter reflects the fact that Amenhotep III married his infant sister, Sitamun, in order, as was the Egyptian custom, to inherit the throne.

The Old Testament also assures us that Solomon was both rich and extremely wise: "So King Solomon exceeded all the kings of the earth for riches and for wisdom" (I Kings 10:23). The best-known story about the wisdom of Solomon is the dispute between two mothers over the parenthood of a child, to be found in I Kings 3:16-28. Each of the women, who lived in the same house, gave birth to a baby boy. One of the babies died, however, and both women claimed the surviving child as her own and eventually came before the king with their dispute. Thereupon Solomon ordered the child to be cut in half with a sword, and one half to be given to each woman. This immediately helped to identify the real mother, who tried to save the boy's life by asking for the child to be given to the other woman.

It is hardly to be believed that the king, who had professional judges and officials, would involve himself personally in such a dispute between two women, who are described in the Bible as harlots. In fact, I believe that we are dealing here with another story that is being told with a different cast: the real story concerns the circumstances surrounding the birth of Moses and Pharaoh's threat to kill him, which will be dealt with later.

Solomon's reputation for wisdom, as well as the name by which he is known, does not rest on resolving a dispute over the motherhood of a child, but on the masterful way he - or, rather, Amenhotep III - ruled Egypt and the vast empire founded originally by his great-grandfather, Tuthmose III (David), an empire that encompassed "all the kingdoms from the river (Euphrates) unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt" (I Kings 4:2 1). An important element of his rule was his marriages to "many strange women" who were princesses from neighboring states with whom, because of these marriages, Egypt enjoyed peaceful relations and avoided costly wars.

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